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Raisins — The Inside Scoop

Renee-Lucie BenoitWhen I was a little kid, my mother gave us raisins as a snack all the time. She knew they were nutritious, and the little boxes they came in were perfect for the lunch box. Later, my mother figured out that the little boxes were costing her more, and she started wrapping a handful of raisins in wax paper for our lunch boxes. We kids gobbled them up. We didn't give them another thought.

Picture-perfect Thompson seedless grapes being turned into raisins by the power of the sun.

Now that I am older and live in one of the premier raisin producing areas of the world — if not the most — I have found that there are things I took for granted about raisins and other fruit. I mention prunes as an example: I always assumed that a prune was a type of fruit, and you took a prune off the tree and dried it. Now I know that prunes are dried plums. In a similar way, I didn't realize raisins came from grapes, and I certainly didn't think they came from the same type of grape we ate fresh.

When we first moved to California's San Joaquin Valley, I saw grapes laid down on the ground on what seemed to be paper between the rows of the vines. What was this? Marty, my husband from Bakersfield, said "Oh, those are raisins." Raisins, I said? "That's the way they dry them," he said. That got my curiosity going, so then and there I vowed to learn more.

Fortunately, through my local CSA I found Three Sisters Organic. Three Sisters Organic/Soghomonian Farms is a third generation farm near Fresno. They grow table, wine, and raisin grapes. We visited the farm on a warm September day at the height of harvest. We pulled up to a clean, new office barn and were greeted by Johnni. Joe and Natalie joined us later.

Natalie, Johnnie and Joe

Johnni Soghomonian is the wife of Joe, whose father first farmed the land. Joe's father came from Armenia after making his way cross-country from Cuba and the east coast. He started with 40 acres. Then Joe was born, and the farm eventually grew to 60 acres. Joe's grandfather came from an area in Armenia where the climate and the agriculture are very similar to California's. So even though no one knows for sure, it seems very likely that they were familiar with grape-growing methods. So they started working diligently, and pretty soon they had the grapes, eggs, and chickens that they sold at the early farmers markets.

Years went by, and Joe met Johnni. They married, and today the farm is named after their three daughters: Christa, Celeste, and Natalie. Natalie runs the operation. We all sat at an antique table that came down from Johnni's grandmother. We talked about what it was like to run a small farm.

"You keep your back strong."

Three Sisters Organic/Soghomonian Farms is a successful farm because they live by one special rule: Don't spend tomorrow's capital. This is good advice for the rest of us, especially if we're contemplating or involved in a small homestead. Through hard work and dedication, the Soghomonians put their profits back into the farm and now have 600 acres. They went 100-percent organic in 1979 and were certified in 1982 (before it was fashionable). They did this because Joe was not pleased to find his fields devoid of animal and insect life. Things are much better being organic, even though in some ways they are harder. It's easier to be a conventional grower, but it's so much more gratifying to be certified organic. Customers are coming around to this way of thinking.

Natalie plants her grape vines in late winter or early spring after danger of frost is gone. The young vines are trained up stakes. After the vines are 3 years old, they get their first crop. At TSO, they grow Zante currents, Flame variety for table grapes and raisins, "natural" Thompson seedless for raisins, and Jumbo Thompson for table grapes and raisins. They also have wine grapes: Colombard, Grenache, Carignane, and Muscat. Ribier is their seeded variety. Another seedless is the Crimson varietal.

Natalie says: "Eat the seeds. There's a lot of nutrition there!"

Cover crops are planted in between the rows in winter and tilled under in late spring. The vines are pruned in winter to leave 4-5 canes.

Demonstrating where the cut is made when pruning

Then they take off the existing crop canes, leaving the remaining canes that will produce the next year's crop.

Handpicking is mandatory for the delicate grapes

The grapes are picked when the sugar tests at the appropriate level. They are picked by hand because of their fragility. To get the land ready to dry grapes to make the raisins, the soil is tilled between the vine rows to make it smooth and terraced slightly to the south so the slight slope of the rows catch the rays of the sun better. Also, vine rows are normally planted on a east/west axis to take full advantage of the direction of the sun.

Grapes are laid on poly paper on an east/west axis to take full advantage of the sun

When the grapes are picked and laid on poly-lined paper trays, they dry for 10 days to two weeks. The weather of the San Joaquin Valley is perfect for this, because there's very little danger of rain and there's little concern about ants or birds stealing a few raisins here and there. There's plenty to go around on 600 acres.

Folded poly trays are ready to be picked up

raisin bins
If you're bold like me, you blow off the sand and they taste good right now!

The dried grapes are shaken to get rid of the sand, and then they're washed and stemmed. Three Sisters only ships grade 1 (the highest grade) to be sold as table grapes. What is not selected goes to the making of the raisins. What little is left over after that goes to distilleries or cow feed, so nothing goes to waste. In addition to their own rigorous standards, their product is subjected to USDA inspection and a safety audit before and after processing. They are different from most growers in that they sell their products direct to the consumer or user. Most growers sell their product to packers so there is an extra step that results in the consumer getting a mixture from a lot of different farms. When you buy from TSO, you know you're getting products that only TSO have grown.

The other thing that they have is a unique custom pack where their raisins go to cold storage or are frozen the day they're packaged. With other methods, the raisins will sit out and dry even more. Doing it the way TSO does it results in plump raisins that have a lovely, moist texture. The raisins defrost on their way to the buyer, so they stay really fresh and consistent.

In addition to direct-to-consumer sales, the raisins are sold to the better bakeries for breads, cookies, and pastries, but grapes are also used for juice concentrate and canneries (think fruit cocktail, for example). I bet you didn't know this: all those brown raisins are from the green Thompson grape variety. Golden raisins are Thompsons but with sulfur dioxide added to keep them from turning brown.

I have a greater appreciation for raisins and grapes today. Go have some yourself and enjoy!

Three Sisters Organic/Soghomomian Farms
8624 S Chestnut Ave
Fresno, CA 93725

Easy, Low-Sugar Peach Jam Recipe

Renee-Lucie BenoitI'm pre-diabetic, but I still like sweet foods once in a while. The following recipe uses very little sugar, and it's super tasty. When you spread it on toast, for example, it tastes like peach pie.



• 4 cups chopped fruit (about 3 lb. fully ripe peaches; I use freestone peaches, but cling peaches will work, too.)
• 2 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
• 1 box fruit pectin
• 1/2 cup sugar (you can use more if you like it sweeter; up to 2 cups)


• large canning pot with elevated basket rack that fits inside
• magnet to pick up sterilized flat lids
• rubber handled jar picker upper
• pint jars with lids made for canning
• jar funnel that fits the mouth of the pint jars
• potato masher


1. Bring the canner — half-full with water — to a simmer. In the meantime, wash the jars and screw bands in hot soapy water, and then rinse with warm water. Pour boiling water over flat lids in a saucepan off the heat. Let them stand in hot water until ready to use. Drain the lids well before using.sterilize

2. Peel and pit the peaches. I usually scald the peaches first for a minute or two, then I put them in ice water to make the skins slip off.



3. Finely chop the fruit. Measure about 4 cups of prepared fruit into a 6- or 8-quart saucepot. Add lemon juice and stir until well blended.

4. Mash the peaches until smooth or chunky (your choice; I like chunky).



5. Stir in the pectin. Bring to a full rolling boil (a boil that doesn't stop bubbling when stirred), stirring constantly.


6. Stir in the sugar. Return to full rolling boil and boil exactly 1 minute, stirring constantly.

7. Remove from heat. Skim off any foam with a metal spoon.


7. Ladle the hot fruit immediately into prepared jars, filling to within 1/4 inch of tops. Wipe off the jar rims and threads. Cover with the 2-piece lids, and then screw the lids on tightly.


8. Place the filled jars on the elevated rack. Lower the rack into the canner with hot water. Be careful. The jars are already hot, so there's only a little chance they will break. If you're using proper materials, there's almost no chance. The water must cover the jars by 1 to 2 inches (add boiling water, if necessary). Cover and bring water to a gentle boil for 10 minutes.


9. Remove the jars and place them upright on towel to cool completely. After the jars cool, check the seals by pressing the middle of lid with finger. If the lid springs back, the lid is not sealed and refrigeration is necessary.

Here's my yummy toast covered with jam.


Wildfire on the Homestead

Renee-Lucie BenoitWe were at a movie yesterday where there was a rancher herding his cattle across the road with a wildfire closing in. It reminded me of the days when we were at the ranch and we would watch anxiously as billows of smoke erupted in the hills above. Would the wind change? Should we evacuate now?

Today as much as ever, the specter of wildfire looms. When I kept my horses at a pasture outside a large metropolitan area, we were not safe from wildfires. Twice we experienced the threat, and twice we managed to escape. Those times marshaled us into coming up with a plan to escape should it ever happen again.

Here are my tips to help you decide what you're going to do:

Number one is preparation. Preparation means creating a defensible space around your homestead. Clear out all brush and combustible materials at least 100 feet away from buildings. Here's something remarkable: I've toured a few fire disaster scenes, and the thing is you'll see buildings burned to the ground right next to completely unscathed ones. What's the difference?

The difference is preparation. The buildings that escaped had defensible space. This includes no dead leaves on the roof; no firewood stacked next to the outside wall. Many homes burn because there is firewood right next to the front door on the wooden deck. This spells disaster if a wildfire ever strikes.

It makes a difference if the trees you have around your house are pine or hardwood. Hardwood resists burning. This is why resinous wood in your woodstove doesn't last as long as hard wood. The ignition point is lower than hardwood. If you have pine trees, trim them up as high as possible. Sometimes there will be a "crown fire," which is a hot fire that races through the tops of the trees. The fire burns right past your structures and leaves them alone. But not if embers from the trees drop on to your unprepared home.

This is what happens: The fire crew comes along and puts out any fire that is around your place. All seems well, so they leave. You've already been evacuated. When you come back hours later, your house is burned to the ground. What happened? Embers. Embers from a fire will lodge in non-obvious places (like wood piles stacked against the house) and not be noticed by the fire crew. They smolder, ignite, and everything goes bye-bye. Metal roofs are fire resistant. Composite shingles are the next best thing.

So let's say you're prepared. You don't have any fire ladders or combustible materials near your house or barn, and everything looks good. What's next?

Make sure your animals load in a trailer without a fuss. Panicked animals can be dangerous. It's actually true that you can wrap a cloth over their eyes and they will be calmer. I've heard that some people think it's good to let the animals loose to fend for themselves. This is a really bad idea. Maybe it worked on the Great Plains when there were no fences anywhere. I have heard of animals running back into a burning barn because that is where they think it's safe. The other problem is that loose livestock can get in the way of first responders and cause big delays, or animals might be hit by trucks. The best thing is to evacuate your animals. Have the back of your car ready to put your dogs in. Have cat carriers by the back door. If you have a few chickens, have a cat carrier for them, too, and a leg hook to catch them quickly. Have a plan for cows, goats, and pigs. If you can, have more than one escape route planned.

If it turns out you can't evacuate, have a shelter-in-place plan. At the horse pasture, we figured out which pastures were least likely to be chimneys for wildfire to roar up. Depending on which way the fire was going, we could choose the best pasture to take the horses. We also made sure our riding arena was completely cleared of combustible materials. Being dirt, it was less likely to cause a problem. We also had the large pond to retreat to, and we had halters for every horse and protective masks for the handlers, so we could make sure we could get where we needed to go without leaving anyone behind.

Be in touch with your neighbors. Everyone will be on-board to help those who need it. Make a plan with your neighbors. Will they take your livestock until the danger is passed? Make sure you're on the sheriff's call list so you can get early warning.

The last thing people realize is that in a wildfire there is a lot of smoke and radiant heat. Smoke and radiant heat can get you as bad as a direct flame. It can be hot, suffocating, and frightening. Sparks and embers will be swirling around everywhere, and it will be scary. Make sure you are prepared for this in case you have to shelter in place. You have to keep your head. If persons you're with can't keep their head and panic, it could be disastrous. If you have an agreed-upon plan beforehand, it will be easier to keep people from panicking.

Above all, listen to your first responders. Don't argue. Do what they say. If you think it's important for them to know things about your homestead, it's best that you tell them BEFORE a wildfire. They will make note of it in their reference materials.

Barn on fire
Photo by Fotolia/Andrius Vaišnoras

Have any of you ever experienced a wildfire personally? I would be eager to hear what happened.

Sun Dried Tomatoes

Renee-Lucie BenoitDrying tomatoes in the sun is the easiest way to preserve your tomato bounty if you live in a hot dry climate like I do. I live in the San Joaquin Valley of California, the relative humidity in summer hovers around 15%, and there are days upon days of cloudless sunny skies. The temperature is usually in the high 90s or low 100s, starting in June and going through August, so it's the perfect climate for dried figs, tomatoes, and raisins. Today, I'm going to show you how I dry tomatoes.

First, pick your fleshiest, least juicy, most tasty tomatoes. I chose Roma tomatoes. Around here they grow like gangbusters, and you'll see truckload upon truckload headed down the road for the canning factory. Trust me when I say you'll be eating Roma tomatoes grown in the San Joaquin Valley next time you pick up a can of tomato sauce or paste this winter when you're making your spaghetti sauce from scratch.

I can dry my tomatoes in one day out in the sun. I put them out in the morning and take them in at night, perfectly dried.

Chop your tomatoes into quarters, and then again, so you've got a sliver of tomato about a half inch thick. Scoop out the seeds and whatever pulp there may be. With a Roma there will be very little pulp. Lay them on a grid tray on a cookie sheet for safety (so they don't fall on the ground by accident. I also line my cookie sheet with parchment paper, but it's not 100% necessary. I just do it so my cookie sheets are easier to clean.) Space the slices so they don't touch each other. It's important for there to be air circulating all around so they dry faster.

fresh sliced

Then, using some kind of wire (I use some old fencing material I found laying around in our "not-junk" pile), make a wire cage that fits over your cookie sheet that also gives head room. This is to support the cheesecloth — which comes next — so it doesn't touch the tomatoes and stick to them. I attach a canopy of one layer of cheesecloth to the wire frame with clothespins, and then I set them in the full sun. The cheesecloth keeps flies and other insects or birds from destroying your handiwork.


If where you are is more humid, it might take more than one day. Just remember to take them in at night. The cool night air might cause them to get moldy, and that would be very frustrating. You may also try finishing them in a very slow oven (around 200 degrees).


When they're leathery, but not crisp, I put them in a jar and cover them with a good, quality olive oil. They'll keep like that for months in the fridge.

You can add herbs to the oil/tomato mix. Dried basil or oregano and garlic work really well. A little salt and pepper wouldn't hurt, but is not necessary as you can season your ingredients when you put them in a recipe.

Homemade Root Beer: Part Three

Renee-Lucie BenoitAfter two tries at making old-fashioned root beer with herbs, I had to admit to some experiment fatigue. I just wanted to have some success to guzzle down with abandon on a hot day. If only I could get some success, I would promise to go back to making it from scratch! I sure have been learning a lot, and I've gotten a much greater respect for brew masters of old! How did they persevere?

The first experiment yielded a good flavor but lousy color. The second experiment yielded great color but lousy flavor. So I decided to cave and try a less nostalgic experiment to see if it were at all possible to come anywhere close to both good flavor and good color.

I got ingredients and a recipe from our local home-brew shop. The recipe used an extract, sugar, and champagne yeast, so there would still be an element of risk. I wanted my root beer to have a small fizz and a head of foam, and to achieve that I need to ferment it. The fizz in this recipe was not going to be from alcohol. It was going to be from carbon dioxide.

Here's what I did:

For 1 gallon of root beer I used ...

• 1/8 teaspoon champagne yeast
• 1 tablespoon root beer extract (I used Homebrew Root Beer Extract from Rainbow Flavors in Osage Beach, Missouri)
• 2 to 2-1/4 cups white sugar
• enough filtered water to make 1 gallon

Note: filtered water is important in making fermented drinks. Water that has fluoride or chlorine in it is going to interfere with the fermentation.


1. Dissolve 1/8 teaspoon of champagne yeast in a cup of warm water (98 degrees feels just slightly warmer than your finger; not hot, not cold. Our core body temperature is around 98.6, but our skin temperature is less.) Let the mixture stand 5 minutes or longer to dissolve, and stir thoroughly with a non-reactive spoon like wood or stainless steel. Store whatever yeast you have not used in the fridge.

2. Shake the extract bottle to mix. Combine 1 tablespoon of extract and 2-1/4 cups of sugar with enough warm filtered water to dissolve the sugar (also store whatever you have not used in the fridge). After dissolving, I tasted it and I think it was too sweet, so I'd go with 2 cups next time.

mix sugar

3. Add the dissolved yeast to the sugar/extract mixture. I used a gallon-sized pitcher that had been sterilized. Now, add warm, filtered water to make one gallon. You can taste it at this time. Warning: don't double dip the spoon or you'll introduce germ laden saliva. At this time you can add more sugar if you like it really sweet. Take care how much you add, of course, as it can't be taken out if you add too much.

fill water

4. Fill sterilized bottles and leave at least 2 inches of air space at the top. I used my grolsch style bottles with the rubber and metal clip top. Filling it all the way will not leave any room for the carbon dioxide that will build up. You could have a popped bottle. I saw it happen when my dad made his own beer. Also, bottles need to be sealed or the brew will be flat or sour from bacteria that might get in.

5. Turn the bottles gently to check on their side to check for leaks. If there are no leaks, set the bottles somewhere where they are at room temperature for 3 or 4 days. Then, put them somewhere cooler, like a basement or apartment fridge, set on 50 degrees. I'm told if you can age it at least 2 weeks then the flavor will be better, but I'm going to check mine in 3 days because I'm impatient. Also, as natural carbonation takes place a little yeast deposit will form on the bottom, so be careful when pouring it to avoid getting this in the glass. It can give the drink an "off" flavor. Refrigerate after opening.

After 3 days, this is what I got. Lots of effervescence and pretty decent flavor. It didn't taste like A&W root beer so my husband was not completely won over, but it was cold and satisfying. We'd just been out planting our pomegranate trees and I was hot! It tasted good to me! There was a slight yeasty flavor, but it was the most like classic-root-beer taste of all my experiments. Now, with this success under my belt, I am all primed to try the ingredients of the first experiment with the ginger bug of the second experiment as my fermenting agent. Bottoms up!


Chili Verde: In Memoriam

Renee-Lucie BenoitI offer this recipe in honor of my best friend Georgia Williams, who just passed away from a brain tumor. She was 62 years old. She was also my partner in horses for 30 years, and I will miss her very much. Chili Verde was her signature dish. She always made it to give away to someone in need.




• 3 cups of chicken broth (I use Better Than Boullion)
• 1 pound of tomatillos, husked and halved (I used little ones, but big ones work, too)
• 1 bunch of green onions chopped (3-4)
• 1-1/2 cups cilantro (packed)
• olive oil
• 6 garlic cloves, peeled
• 4-pound pork shoulder, trimmed and cut into 1-inch cubes (I used a lean cut of meat)
• 1 tablespoon cumin seed
• 1 large onion
• 3/4 cup roasted and peeled Anaheim chili (any MILD chili)
• 2 teaspoons dried oregano (preferably Mexican)
• 1 pound potatoes, cut into 1-inch cubes (Yukon Gold are nice, but I used my homegrown ones. I also pre-steamed them so they were already cooked.)


1. Prepare the tomatillos by turning on the TV to some non-riveting program, and then sit there while peeling each tomatillo by hand. Of course, the TV is not necessary as peeling the tomatillos in silence is a very meditative process. The husks come off easily but will leave your hands sticky, so have a towel nearby. Don't wipe your eyes. The tomatillos are not noxious, but the sticky substance will not be good to get in your eyes. Rinse the tomatillos under cold water. Set aside.


2. Prepare Anaheim chili's by oiling them and putting them on a roasting pan in a 325 degree oven. You can also fire-roast them over a BBQ grill. When the skin turns brown or blackens a little, let them cool and then peel the tough outer skin off. Chop up the soft inside. Set aside.

roast chilis

3. Puree 2 cups of chicken broth, 1/4 of the tomatillos, green onions, cilantro (stems are OK), and garlic in a blender. Set this aside. We'll call it salsa verde (which means "green salsa").

green salsa 

4. Brush a heavy pot with oil. Heat it over medium heat. Sprinkle your cubed meat with salt and pepper. Then, working in small batches, brown your meat. Put the meat aside as you brown it until it's all done. If there's a lot of fat in the pot, pour some off until there's only a small amount. If you use lean pork, you may have to add oil.

brown meat

5. Then add your onion to the pot and sauté until it is soft. Sprinkle your cumin seeds over the onions and cook until onion is golden brown and not burned. Add remaining tomatillos and cook until soft and maybe browned in a few places. Don't let it burn.


6. Add the pork with juices back in, and add 2 cups of the green salsa, 1 cup of broth, chilis, and oregano. Cover and simmer over medium-low until pork is tender. About 2 hours. You can also put the whole shebang in a crock pot and let it simmer all day.

Note: This is really good re-heated, so if you want to make it a couple days ahead that's purr-fectly okay.

in pot

7. When to add potatoes:

I pre-steamed my potatoes, so after about a couple of hours of cooking the stew, I then add the potatoes. They just need to absorb the flavor, so you don't need to cook the heck out of them. If you've used potatoes that hold their shape, they won't disintegrate (like baking potatoes would).

8. Stir in remaining green salsa, season with salt and pepper, cook another half hour.

9. This is good over rice, with tortillas, in tacos or burritos.


Homemade Root Beer: Part Two

Renee-Lucie BenoitIn my first root beer post I found that the kefir culture didn't give me the results I wanted. I found that I had made a decent probiotic root beer flavored drink that did not come close to classic root beer in color and fizziness. The flavor was kind of a root beer flavored water-y kefir. I wanted a drink close in flavor and color to root beer I remembered from my youth.

So I made a few consultations with people I knew were familiar with fermented drinks and found that kefir culture was not the best for the classic taste. I was counseled to try ginger bug and a more simple ingredient combination. I got this recipe from Wellness Mama. Then I modified it for my own kitchen.

Here's what I came up with:

First you need to make a Ginger Bug. Don't ask me where that name came from. I think it's a shortened way of saying Lacto-Fermented Ginger Starter.

Ginger Bug Ingredients

2 fresh ginger roots — about 1-1/2 inches long; peeled unless using organic and then you can use it with the skin on
1/2 cup white sugar — has to be white otherwise the fermentation will not work properly
2 cups filtered water
quart size mason jar
rubber band

Cut a chunk of ginger root and grate it to make 2-3 tablespoons of grated ginger.




Put the ginger in the mason jar and add 2-3 tablespoons of white sugar.


Add 2 cups of filtered water.


Don't use water that has chlorine in it. The chlorine will kill the fermentation critters.

Stir with a non-metal spoon and lightly cover with cheesecloth held in place by a rubber band.



Then for five days add 1 tablespoon grated ginger and 1 tablespoon of sugar once a day and stir. It could take a few days more than five for it to work. What you're looking for is a sweet yeasty ginger smell with fizzles/bubbles at the top.  If mold appears on the surface throw it away and start again. If you make sure your utensils are all clean and sterilized you will more likely be able to avoid mold. If it takes over a week to ferment throw it away and start again. Also don't ferment it next to kombucha or sauerkraut or any other lacto-fermented stuff. They will "cross pollinate".

Ginger Bug is good for many homemade sodas. If you want to try it out on other recipes on down the line you can let it rest in the fridge until you're ready. Just add a teaspoon of grated fresh ginger and 1 teaspoon of sugar every week. When you're ready let it come to room temperature and start feeding it again.

OK, now is the time to start the actual root beer. The even easier part.

Root Beer Ingredients

1/2 cup sassafras root bark
1/2 teaspoon wintergreen leaf
1 cup cane sugar
1/2 cup molasses
1 tiny dash of ground cinnamon
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
3/4 cup homemade ginger bug
Optional: pinch of hops, pinch of coriander, pinch of allspice, up to 1/4 cup lime juice, a few juniper berries (leftover from the first experiment)

Put the sassafras root bark and wintergreen leaf in a large pot big enough to hold 3 quarts of filtered water. Add the spice if you decide to use them. Add 3 quarts of water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer for 20 minutes. Strain through cheesecloth into a large pitcher to remove the herbs. Then while it is still hot add the sugar and molasses and stir with a clean spoon until it is dissolved. Let cool until just room temperature (not hot, not cold) and add the 3/4 cup ginger bug (strain it through cheesecloth to remove the particles of ginger) and vanilla. Also add lime juice at this time if you decide to try that. I did. I added all the ingredients listed. Transfer to grolsch type clean sterilized bottles. You know, the ones with the wire clasp on the lid. Let the bottles sit at room temperature for a few days but check after two days for carbonation. Right away my bottles started to get a mottle-ly "foam" on the surface but I let them sit. After 2 days I opened one carefully and it did have a little "pop" but not too much. I smelled it and decided that it only vaguely smelled like root beer. The molasses was not an undertone. It was dominant. Then because I was not sure what the foam-y stuff was on the top I made a command decision. I threw it away. It did not smell like we wanted it to and even though botulism is rare in these kinds of things the concern we had put us over the top.

I remember reading a story Ruth Reichl told about her mother. Ruth Reichl wrote a great memoir about her life, the beginnings of California Cuisine and her days as editor in chief at Gourmet magazine. She said (and I paraphrase) "My mother was always trying things out on my dad. She'd say here try this and he would dutifully open his mouth and let her spoon the stuff in. Invariably he'd wrinkle his nose and spit the stuff out. Mother would say yes, I thought it was going bad."

So, not wanting to do a Ruth's Mother on my husband I decided to throw it out.

Here's a picture of what we got. Does it look benign to you?


You might ask why would I offer a recipe that I threw out in the final analysis? I offer it because if you do it right and your result does not have any suspicious things about it I'm sure that you can get a lacto-fermented healthy drink that is good in its own right. I want you to know my whole process so you can learn from it and decide what you want to do.

Root Beer Part Three comes next.