MEDIEVAL WORLDVIEW: European diagrams from the Middle Ages showed the world as a 'T' in an 'O.' At the top was Asia, with Europe and Africa located below. The three continents were shown separated by water, and circled by it as well.
WIND ROSE: This detail from a map made circa 1639 of Santiago Bay, Cuba, shows a decorative wind rose. The compass rose on maps today is a combination of the old wind rose and the modern compass.
Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division/National Library of the Netherlands